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Digestive system – Question bank

Function of Salivary glands:-

It consists of parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands

A mixture of water, mucus and ptyalin is secreted by it

It secretes and enzyme which converts converts starch in food to maltose

Function of Mouth:-

It produces the enzyme amylase

Mechanical breakdown of food occurs here

It helps to moisten food and begins the digestion of carbohydrates

It is here that saliva mixes with food

Function of Pharynx:-

It is a part of both the digestive and respiratory system

It connects mouth to the oesophagus

Function of Oesophagus:-

It delivers food to stomach by means of series of muscular contractions called ‘Peristalsis’

It is a tube joining the pharynx to the stomach made of flexible muscle to ease pushing of food

Thin long muscular tube where no digestion occurs

Function of Stomach:-

It secretes Hydrochloric acid to kill harmful bacteria and makes the medium acidic

It contains special cells called oxyntic or parietal cells which secrete hydrochloric acid

It initiates protein digestion by activating the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin

It provides acidic medium for the activity of pepsin and other enzymes of the gastric juice

The hormone gastrin is secreted here

Function of Liver:-

It is the largest gland in the body and helps in bile secretion

Urea is produced in this organ

Glucose is stored in the form of glycogen here

The juice it secretes breaks down large fat droplets into small droplets making their digestion easier

The juice it secretes is responsible for the emulsification of fats

Function of Pancreas:-

The juice it secretes breaks down fats completely into fatty acids and glycerol

It consists of and exocrine portion and an endocrine portion

It endocrine portion secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon

The juice secreted by it contains enzymes that digests proteins, fats and carbohydrates

Function of Gall bladder:-

It stores bile juice

Fat droplets are broken down into small droplets by juice stored in this organ

It is a pear shaped organ present below the liver

Function of small intestine:-

It is a 7 meters in length

Complete digestion occurs here

It receives bile and pancreatic juice

It has millions of tiny, finger-like outgrowths called villi

Function of Large intestine:-

It is about 1.5 meter in length

Absorption of water and some salts from the undigested food takes place here

It forms faeces and pushes it toward the rectum

Bacterial fermentation of undigested material occurs here